Introduction

In numerous industries: beverage production; food production, including protein and fruit/vegetable growth and processing; wastewater treatment; hospitals and medical facilities; cleanliness and hygiene are critical in preventing the spread of infections, or providing clean water for people, animals or production activities. Various disinfectants play a crucial role in the processes in these industries. Some of the common disinfectants used are Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, Peracetic Acid, Hydrogen Peroxide, Chloramines and others.  The use of disinfectants aid in eliminating (or at least minimizing the potential depending the disinfectant used), the spread of Salmonella, E.Coli, Listeria, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and other viruses and bacteria. All disinfectants have varied successful kill rates based on contact time and strength, or concentration of the solution. With recent increases in technology,

TwinOxide (0.3% Chlorine Dioxide) Products

TwinOxide has been able to produce a high purity (99.9%), highly stable 0.3% solution of Chlorine Dioxide that is highly effective at killing the full spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, molds, and spores. This article will discuss the benefits of using TwinOxide to that of Peracetic Acid in water disinfection.   

What is TwinOxide?

TwinOxide is a unique patented formula consisting of a two part powder component that combines to form a highly pure (99.9%), highly stable 0.3% solution of Chlorine Dioxide. This formulation is superior to that of generated Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) since generated ClO2 is unstable and is typically only ~70% pure solution of ClO2. TwinOxide contains no Chlorine and has none of the harmful by-products that Chlorine has, i.e. no THM’s, HAA’s or other carcinogenic compounds. TwinOxide has a 5 year guaranteed shelf life in it’s powder form, and has an effective biocidal life when added to water of over 42 days. Overall TwinOxide allows for simple, controlled and consistent dosing in nearly any application. 

Why Use Chlorine Dioxide?

Chlorine Dioxide is a highly effective disinfectant that functions as a powerful oxidizing agent with a high residual disinfection capacity. Chlorine Dioxide is effective against all waterborne microorganisms (spores, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, yeast and algae) and has a very short contact time for 99.9% kill rate. It is also effective at the removal of Iron and Maganese compounds.  Additionally, ClO2 does not have the strong odor and corrosive qualities associated with other disinfectants. An article by Food Safety Magazine listed 10 reasons why a protein processing plant should be using Chlorine Dioxide in their processes. 

A Comparison Between TwinOxide (0.3% Chlorine Dioxide) and Peracetic Acid

TwinOxide produces 99.9% pure ClO2 through the combination of two powders (component A & B), is readily available in over 45 countries with no production limitations, and functions as

Table 1 – Chlorine Dioxide compared to Paracetic Acid in wastewater treatment

a highly effective oxidizer. Peracetic Acid (PAA) is produced in a solution of Hydrogen Peroxide and Acetic Acid and production of either of these compounds can be limiting in the production of PAA. Peracetic Acid is also an oxidizer that works on a microorganism’s outer cell membrane by means of electron transfer. Both ClO2 and PAA are powerful disinfectants, but ClO2 is much more economical and has far less impact on the environment than PAA. Chlorine Dioxide also has a high efficacy rate at a wide range of pH (4-10) values and is not affected by temperature, whereas the effectiveness of PAA is influenced by both pH and temperature. See Table 1 for a comparison of effectiveness for a 50% spore reduction by both ClO2 and PAA. 

An additional comparison between TwinOxide (0.3% Chorine Dioxide) and Peracetic Acid is listed below in Table 2.

TwinOxide (0.3% Chlorine Dioxide) Compared to Peracetic Acid

TwinOxide (0.3% Chlorine Dioxide)Peracetic Acid
Among disinfectants, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) presents best efficacy at wide range of pH (4-10) values and not affected by temperature. Very short contact time required 1-10 minutes.Peracetic acid is more effective when the pH value is 7 than at a pH range between 8 and 9. At a temperature of 15°C and a pH value of 7, five times more peracetic acid is required to affectively deactivate pathogens than at a pH value of 7 and a temperature of 35°C.
No smell at Disinfection concentration.Strong odor and will add tainting and odor to food products or fresh produce.
Among disinfectants, TwinOxide® (0.3% ClO2) presents a best efficacy. Experimental studies have highlighted that ClO2 shows a good broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.Peracetic acids are a derivative of hydrogen peroxide and the disinfection spectrum is very limited.

PAA doses to reach the target fecal coliform level of 9000 CFU/100 mL exceeded 6 mg/L; similar results were obtained for enterococci, and no inactivation of Clostridium perfringens was observed.
However a 1-log reduction of MS-2 occurred at PAA doses of 1.5 mg/L and higher.

The disinfectant capabilities are diminished in the presence of fats, oils, proteins, body fluids etc. And not effective against wide range of bacteria, spores, fungi and viruses. Peracetic acid and Quats are only effective only in high doses.

Peracetic acid produces acetic acid, which is very useful nourishment for micro organisms-therefore bacteria grow/enlarge more after using peracetic acid.
Approved for drinking water. Not approved for drinking water.
Easy product to handle.

TwinOxide® is not explosive/hazardous in any way.
Dangerous product to handle.

Belongs to the group of Organic peroxides: Class 5.2/5b- these are extremely dangerous classes. Peracetic acids are a derivative of hydrogen peroxide. Peracetic acid is disrupted very fast by catalysts( e.g. rust, dust, metals etc.)

Accidents will happen when a piece of metal (nail, screw, coin, pen, etc.) drop into a vessel of peracetic acid. In such cases peracetic acid will explode spontaneously as peracitic acid immediately reacts.
That is why water to be disinfected should contain very less iron and manganese.

Flammable. Explosive.

Above 40.5°C explosive vapour/air mixtures may be formed. Above 40.5°C use a closed system, ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical equipment.

Do NOT expose to friction or shock. NO open flames, NO sparks, and NO smoking. NO contact with flammable substances. NO contact with hot surfaces.
There is nil corrosion effect on pipeline materials in contact and
dosing pumps and other instruments.
Corrosive to equipment.
Required Concentration is decided by dosing optimization process and even very low dosage as 0.05 ppm is also applicable.Cannot be used above 0.4%. (General application level is 0.1% to 0.35%.) And used in very high concentration > 10 ppm.
Very effective as a hard surface sanitizer.

~ 50 ppm at contact time (5-10 minutes of contact).
Also effective as a hard surface sanitizer at higher dosing.

The minimal sporocidal concentration (MSC) was established in terms of time for each biocide. The lowest MSC values for peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, and formaldehyde were 168-336
ppm (1-2 h of contact), 5625-11250 ppm (5-7 h), 168-336 ppm (2-3 h), and 1875-3750 ppm (5-30 min), respectively.

Conclusions

While both Chlorine Dioxide and Peracetic Acid are powerful oxidizing agents and disinfectants, the use of Chlorine Dioxide, and specifically TwinOxide, is a more effective disinfectant, a more economical solution, and offers more benefits over the use of Peracetic Acid. To inquire about the application of TwinOxide in your production facility, please contact us and we would be happy to assist you in designing a simple, cost-effective set-up.